Defining Supply Chain Attacks
A supply chain attack is a type of cyber attack where the attacker targets an organization’s supply chain to gain access to sensitive information or disrupt operations. The attack can be facilitated by compromising a supplier, vendor, or third-party service provider and using that access to infiltrate the target company’s systems. Examples of such attacks include the infamous SolarWinds hack and the NotPetya malware attack. These attacks are often challenging to detect and prevent because they typically originate outside the target company’s network. Supply chain attacks are versatile and can affect a wide range of targets, from large corporations to governments and their infrastructures.
Complexities and Risks in Software Supply Chains
Software supply chains are complex systems with many interconnected entities. They are vulnerable to various risks, including natural disasters, cyberattacks, geopolitical events, and pandemics. Building resilience into these supply chains is essential to mitigating disruptions. This can involve diversifying suppliers and partners, creating redundancy in critical processes, and developing contingency plans for different types of risks. Collaboration and communication among supply chain partners are key to identifying and addressing potential threats.
Common Sources of Supply Chain Attacks
Supply chain attacks can come from various sources, such as commercial software products, open-source supply chains, and foreign products.
- Commercial Software Products: Commercial software products often serve as an avenue for supply chain attacks. If a software company’s system or product is compromised, numerous targets can be affected. Compiler attacks, where the compiler is manipulated to insert malicious code, are one such method.
- Open-source Supply Chains: In the case of open-source supply chains, anyone can contribute to the development of a program. This openness provides a channel for hackers to introduce vulnerabilities into these software solutions.
- Foreign-sourced Threats: Foreign-sourced threats can involve malicious code inserted into products at the behest of government agencies or infiltrated malicious actors. In some countries where the government exercises significant control over private companies, products may contain this kind of malicious code.
Mechanics and Types of Supply Chain Attacks
Supply chain attacks function by hackers inserting malicious code into software or compromising network protocols. Several types of supply chain attacks exist, all of which involve creating or exploiting security weaknesses in trusted solutions. They include stolen certificates, compromised software development tools, preinstalled malware on devices, and malicious code in firmware components.
Recent Examples of Supply Chain Attacks
Recent examples of supply chain attacks include the Dependency Confusion, 2021, which involved breaching several high-profile companies, the Mimecast, 2021 attack where a security certificate was compromised, and the SolarWinds, 2020 and ASUS, 2018 attacks, where backdoors and updates were exploited to introduce malware to numerous systems.
Mitigation Strategy: Software Composition Analysis
One of the strategies to mitigate supply chain threats is Software Composition Analysis (SCA). SCA is a process used to identify and assess the security risks associated with the use of third-party software components in an application. SCA tools scan the application’s source code and dependencies to identify software components and check them against known vulnerabilities and licenses. This analysis enables companies to identify and address potential security risks associated with using third-party software components.
Best Practices to Counter Supply Chain Attacks
To counter supply chain attacks, companies can adopt several best practices. These include auditing unapproved shadow IT infrastructure, maintaining an updated and effective software asset inventory, assessing a vendor’s security posture, treating validation of supplier risk as an ongoing process, and using client-side protection tools. Endpoint Detection and Response (EDR) solutions and strong code integrity policies can also help secure against supply chain attacks. Companies should also ensure a secure build and update infrastructure and develop a systematic incident response process.
In conclusion, supply chain attacks represent a significant threat to organizations due to their potential to inflict massive damage. However, the use of strategies like Software Composition Analysis (SCA) and various best practices can significantly mitigate these risks and protect the integrity of supply chains. The complexities and interconnectedness of software supply chains make them an appealing target for adversaries. However, by understanding the nature of these attacks, recognizing the potential sources, and implementing strategic mitigation measures such as Software Composition Analysis (SCA) and various best practices, organizations can significantly reduce these risks and safeguard their operations. Taking proactive measures to strengthen the security of supply chains is no longer optional—it has become a necessity in today’s cyber threat landscape.